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Other articles where New Testament Apocrypha is discussed: biblical of Philip) preserve some legends and myths found in the early Christian centres of Edessa, especially the apocryphal gospels, contain many sayings attributed to Jesus.

Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online Discover Thailand (Country Guide) (2nd Edition) file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with Discover Thailand (Country Guide) (2nd Edition) book. Happy reading Discover Thailand (Country Guide) (2nd Edition) Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF Discover Thailand (Country Guide) (2nd Edition) at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF Discover Thailand (Country Guide) (2nd Edition) Pocket Guide.

What are their customs and traditions? What landmarks are they noted for? Do they have a culture similar to us? What does this imply? In the process of your sharings , you may also bring out the differences of both countries interms of forms of government , religion and socio —economic status if you are familiar with. Before you proceed, connect the picturesunder Column A with the vocabulary under Column B and the meaning under Column C, usinglines. Find out what Filipino culture , traditions andbeliefs are practiced by Thais as depicted in this selection.

Discover, too, the attractions inThailand that captivated the heart of the writer while telling the story. Our agenda for the first day of our tour started with a tour of Wat Po. One of the temples in Bangkok alone, it is home to the famous Reclining Buddha, which is said to be 46meters long.

There are temples in all of Thailand, where 90percent of the people are Buddhists. Our loquacious guide regales us with the colorful history of Bangkok and how it became theimperial city years ago, when the god-king Rama I moved the royal residence to this side ofthe Chao Phraya River. The best buys of Thai silks, spices and crafts are still at the riverside markets where one can alsoproduce gold, jade and other precious jewelry. Not to be missed are the Temple of the Dawn along the Chao Phraya, a showcase of Chineseporcelain mosaics, and the Temple of the Giant Swing for some of the finest murals.

Only forstrong knees is the Temple of the Golden Mount, atop a climb of steps, housing one of thelargest bronze buddhas in the world.

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Chinese section. The King had also brought with him excellent samples of porcelain, which thecourt artisans used to decorate pagodas using their elaborate spires. At the main temple, devoteesbuy one—inch gold leaf squares which they stick to smaller buddhas as offering to their god. Everyday, morning ceremonies are held at an adjacent temple surrounded by fourmagnificent monuments: the first in red built by Rama I; the second in yellow, by Rama II; thethird in green by Rama III; and the fourth in blue, by Rama IV.

Just as fascinating is the sala treeunder which, according to legend, Buddha was born although in India. To cap a hectic first day, we had dinner at the Baa Thai Restaurant while watching heavilycostumed folk dancers from the lowland and highland villages, including favorite destinations, likeChiang Mai, the second largest city up north, from whence one can visit the winter palace of theRoyal Family and the training school for working elephants. So the sidewalk eateries are relatively sanitary, although foreign visitorsare advised to stick to bottled mineral water or soft drinks.

Each group will construct questions that begin with the name of thegroup. Your questions will be taken from the selection read, and these will be thrown to the groupof your choice. Your performance as a group will depend on how well you have responded to thequestions asked. Answer: The mood of the writer while telling the story is happy and excited. Draw on this canvas interesting customs, traditions and culture or even landmarksdistinctive of the country. Be able to explain or discuss your drawing in a 5-sentence paragraph. Provide your own title. The selectionenables you to deeply appreciate its customs and beliefs similar to ours.

One way of getting information and knowledge is through listening. Listening is receiving language through the ears. It involves identifyingthe sounds of speech and processing them into words and sentences. Whenwe listen, we use our ears to receive individual sounds letters, stress, rhythmand pauses , and we use our brain to convert these into messages that we find meaning in.

Listening in any language requires focus and attention. It is a skill that some people need towork on harder than others. People who have difficulty concentrating are typically poor listeners. Listening in a second language requires even greater focus. Find out what facts or information are presented by the speaker and determine if the speaker is foror against an issue. Before listening, take note of the following guidelines when listening Listen to get the general ideas of the text.

Take down notes to help you recall important ideas. Be guided by the following questions Enumerate the plans of action of Thai government and its people in achieving their goals. Listen carefully as your teacher reads the listening text. After a pause in every thirdparagraph, be able to answer the questions in the question cards. Be guided by the pauses inorder to answer the questions. So, tune in, listen and give your responses. It has an area of , sq. In addition, it is also a leader in theproduction of maize, frozen shrimp, canned pineapple, natural rubber and sugar. With theimplementation of the first industrial Promotion Act in and various promotional programsundertaken by the Board of Investment, the way was paved for the remarkable growth of themanufacturing sector.

With the full backing of the Royal Thai Government extended to theTourism Authority of Thailand, the sector grew by a hefty 16 percent per annum. What are thediversifiedindustries inThailand? What are thecauses ofeconomicgrowth ofThailand?

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IFill up this diagram, and explain your answers. From this activity, you have learned the similarities of Philippines and Thailand in terms ofsocio- economic goals. What other insights can you extract? Can unity be possible in diversity ofculture, beliefs and traditions? Provide yourown title. Inpaintings, we find meanings as interpreted by the artist. The artist has a way of interpreting hissubject.

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This is the role of literature. It is to make the reader interpret and imagine what he isreading and to identify himself with it. By a skilful use of language, the writer places realism anduniqueness in his stories, poems or essays, as if making the reader feel as if he has experienced itin his life. Shall we now study the different elements of a short story? Is it during the day, night, what year, what period? Is it sunny, rainy, and stormy? What are his customs and status in life? Is it bright, cheerful, dark orfrightening? Example : My sister and I had a fun—filled vacation last summer.

We swam in the sea every morning, climbed the trees in theafternoon and fed the animals before dark. When the moon was bright, we played patintero. Using the guide questions above, provide the answers Where is the action taking place? Where is the story taking place? What is the weather condition? Plot — It is the sequence of events in a story or play. The plot is a planned, logical series ofevents having a beginning, middle and end. The short story usually has one plot, and it could beread in one sitting. There are five essential parts of a plot:a.

Rising ActionThis is where the events in the story become complicated and the conflict in the story isrevealed. This is where events between introduction and climax take place. ClimaxIt is the turning point of the story and the highest point of interest. It is where the reader askswhat will happen next. Will the conflict be resolved or not? Falling ActionThe problems and complications begin to be resolved.

DenouementThis is the final outcome or untangling of events in the story. Here are three different parts of a story. On the blank after each paragraph, write whether thegiven part is the beginning, middle and end of the story. Suddenly, the boat tilted to the left. Answer: Finally, the fox grumbled. I know they must be sour. Once there was a child who liked summer best. He lived on a farm and every summer, heenjoyed harvesting corn, vegetables and fruits. Conflict - It is the opposition of forces which ties one incident to another and makes the plotmove.

There are two types of conflict:External — refers to outside forces that may cause conflict, like another human being,circumstances, environment, etc. Internal - refers a struggle within oneself. The character maybe debating inside himselfabout what to do. Character — there are two meanings for the word character: the person in a work of fiction andthe characteristics of a person. He may be the protagonist, the good-natured character, or theantagonist, the opponent of the main character. Point of View — the angle from which the story is told6.

Theme — it is the controlling idea or value in a piece of fiction. The setting and characters are revealed. The main character faces a conflict or problem. The problems and complications are resolved. Makato never idled and never complained. He did every kind of work, yet he remained cheerful. Makato had no sister or a brother to take care of him. He tried his luck in a far-off land, so he became successful.

Makato was an orphan, but he was able to achieve his goals. What words are connected by and in sentence 1? What are the two clauses that are joined by yet in sentence 2? What are the phrases that are connected by or in sentence 3? What are the clauses that are joined by so in sentence 4? What are the clauses that are joined by but in sentence 5? Sentence 2 uses yet to show contrast of idea. Sentence 3 uses or to join nouns of equal rank. Sentence 4 uses so to show result.

Sentence 5 uses but to show contrast of idea. Therefore, when you want to link and join words, phrases and clauses, use a conjunction. Coordinating Conjunctions join words, phrases and clauses of equal rank. And is used to connect words, phrases and clauses of which are equal. It joins an affirmative and negative sentencepattern.

So is used to show a result. Underline the words, phrases andclauses it joins. Philippines and Thailand are both Asian countries. Thailand shifted from agriculture to manufacturing, so she gained a thirty percent economicgrowth. Philippines, like Thailand, enjoys a tropical climate, so both are tourist destinations in Asia. Thailand focused on food processing, but she developed heavily in export promotion.

Write your sentencesin the blanks provided. Most cars are now equipped with radial tires. The chances for common blowouts are reduced. The magazine contained only six articles. They were all about politics or sports. The meat was spoiled by the time I returned home. I had forgotten to put it in the refrigeratorwhen I left. They work for unity, peace and progressin the region. Both countries have diversity of culture. Their traditions and beliefs bring harmony and unity. Write yoursentences on the blanks. Thais love spicy food and Chinese Filipinos and Thais have water dwellers so Riverside markets are attractions for small businessmen and Sidewalk eateries mushroomed along the streets yet Traffic jams and pedicabs are both a sight to see and to experience and Read each sentence carefully and choose from the word pool the character traits are inferred inthe following lines.

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Write your answer at the end of the statements. Makato had no brother nor sister to take care of him. His father and mother died. He never idled, fed the pigs, and cleaned the forests. He never complained and was satisfied. He did every kind of work, like carrying heavy things. He tried his luck in a far-off land. Makato thought about what he liked to do in the future. He picked up the shell and handed it to the king. He planted the ground with more seedlings. He knelt down and gave the king lettuces. Constructing22 Construct sentences using the words found in the word pool.

Work with your seatmate and dopeer checking. Find out if the words were used properly in the sentence. Draw out the Filipino values and traits of the character which enable him to becomesuccessful and better person. He wasan orphan, for his father and mother died when he was very young. He hadno brothers, sisters, cousins or friends to take care of him, so he had tomake a living for himself.

He did every kind of work—carrying heavy things, clearing away theforest, or feeding pigs. He never idled. Although he was paid only small wages, he was satisfied. He knew that if he would not work, he would starve. Wherever he went, his employers praised himfor being sensible, hardworking, good-tempered and cheerful. One fine evening after he had finished chopping up a big pile of wood, he sat down to restand thought of all he would like to do in the future.

He wanted to try his luck in far—off strangelands, for he longed for exciting adventures. I wish I could see the land for myself. You might be lucky if you could go there. Sometime later, Makato decided to try his fortune. He left his village and set out in the wideworld. He walked along cheerfully, enjoying new insights and talking to the people he met on theway. Why are you here alone? How is it that you are travelling alone,such a young boy as you are? Who knows? Youmight see Pra Ruang someday. If he could work with this kind of woman, he would have aplace to sleep, some food to eat and perhaps someday, he might be lucky enough to see the king.

He worked hard andwell, and the mahout and his wife grew fond of him. One day, the sky was clear and the weather so fine, it seemed to Makato that it must be alucky day. It was Pra Ruang himself. Makato bowed low at once with his handsclasped together before him. His heart beat fast. At the time, the people of Sukhothai used cowrie shells as money.

For along time, he could not think of a way to use it so that it would earn money for him. One day, he passed by a stall in the market where the seeds of many different plants weresold. He looked along the stall and caught sight of a basket full of lettuce seed. He couldgrow small plants like that. How much do you want? Then, I will take theseeds that stick to it. That must be right for one cowrie shell. Help yourself. Then, he dipped his finger into the pile ofseeds.

When he pulled his wet finger out, it was covered with seeds. He carefully scraped them ofhis finger into the palm of his hand and went away, happily clutching the seeds. Now that he had seeds, Makato broke the soil and sowed them at once. He watered theseed bed every day and soon, the young plants appeared. Day by day, he cleared more groundand planted more lettuce seedlings until the kitchen garden was covered with them.

He was veryproud of himself because he had done so well. Makato waited for an opportunity,then knelt down and proudly presented his biggest lettuces to the king. Makato told the king the whole story. The king was impressed with his intelligence andindustry, So much so that later on, he gave Makato a job in the palace. As the years passed, Makato grew tall and handsome. He mastered every grace andserved the king well.

He was so loyal that the king trusted him absolutely. He was also happily married to the beautiful young daughterof the king. After that, the king made him the ruler of the Mon. So it was that Makato, who had once been a poor orphan, became the king of thatprosperous kingdom. Comprehension Check:Answer the following guide questions. Describe Makato. What character traits does he possess? What could be the reason why Makato left his place? Through inferring what the character says, does and thinks, one can recognize the traits ofa literary character.

How would you nurture and enhance your positive traits? In what ways? What lessons in life does the author want to convey to you? Are these true to all ages andraces? Describe his appearance, attitude, action and speech. Fill upthe character web with your answers and explain each trait. What traits do you both share? Write your answers between two circles. Which of those traits would you like to improve?

Be guided by the following keyquestions. What kind of life did he have at the beginning of the story? What motivated him to leave his place? How did the king recognize him? Cite the incident that showed it. What did he do with the cowrie shell? What was his reward from the king?

Past28 Plot the events in the story by writing them inside the space provided. Be able to answer the guidequestions below. Explain your work. What is the beginning of the story? What is the rising action? What is the climax of the story? What is the falling action? What is the denouement? Write a sentenceparagraph. Workwith a partner and brainstorm ideas to come up with a sentence paragraph. In March Pridi became Siam's first democratically elected prime minister.

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In , after he agreed to hand back the Indochinese territories occupied in as the price for admission to the United Nations , all wartime claims against Siam were dropped and substantial US aid was received. In December , the young king Ananda Mahidol had returned to Siam from Europe, but in June he was found shot dead in his bed, under mysterious circumstances.

Three palace servants were tried and executed for his murder, although there are significant doubts as to their guilt and the case remains both murky and a highly sensitive topic in Thailand today. The king was succeeded by his younger brother, Bhumibol Adulyadej. In August Pridi was forced to resign amid suspicion that he had been involved in the regicide.

Without his leadership, the civilian government foundered, and in November the army, its confidence restored after the debacle of , seized power. After an interim Khuang-headed government, in April the army brought Phibun back from exile and made him prime minister. Pridi, in turn, was driven into exile, eventually settling in Beijing as a guest of the PRC. Phibun's return to power coincided with the onset of the Cold War and the establishment of a communist regime in North Vietnam. He soon won the support of the United Nations. Once again political opponents were arrested and tried, and some were executed.

During this time, several of the key figures in the wartime Free Thai underground, including Thawin Udom, Thawi Thawethikul, Chan Bunnak, and Tiang Sirikhanth, were eliminated in extra-legal fashion by the Thai police, run by Phibun's ruthless associate Phao Sriyanond. There were attempted counter-coups by Pridi supporters in , , and , the second leading to heavy fighting between the army and navy before Phibun emerged victorious. In the navy's attempt, popularly known as the Manhattan Coup , Phibun was nearly killed when the ship where he was held hostage was bombed by the pro-government air force.

Although nominally a constitutional monarchy, Thailand was ruled by a series of military governments, most prominently led by Phibun, interspersed with brief periods of democracy. Thailand took part in the Korean War. Communist Party of Thailand guerrilla forces operated inside the country from the earlys to They included 12, full-time fighters at the peak of movement, but never posed a serious threat to the state. By Phibun was losing his leading position in the army to younger rivals led by Field Marshal Sarit Thanarat and General Thanom Kittikachorn , the Sarit's army staged a bloodless coup on 17 September , ending Phibun's career for good.

The coup beginning a long tradition of US-backed military regimes in Thailand. Thanom became prime minister until , then yielded his place to Sarit, the real head of the regime. Sarit held power until his death in , when Thanom again took the lead. The regimes of Sarit and Thanom were strongly supported by the US. Thailand had formally become a US ally in with the formation of the SEATO While the war in Indochina was being fought between the Vietnamese and the French, Thailand disliking both equally stayed aloof, but once it became a war between the US and the Vietnamese communists, Thailand committed itself strongly to the US side, concluding a secret agreement with the US in , sending troops to Vietnam and Laos, and allowing the US to use airbases in the east of the country to conduct its bombing war against North Vietnam.

The Vietnamese retaliated by supporting the Communist Party of Thailand 's insurgency in the north, northeast, and sometimes in the south, where guerrillas co-operated with local discontented Muslims. In the postwar period, Thailand had close relations with the US, which it saw as a protector from communist revolutions in neighbouring countries. Agent Orange, a herbicide and defoliant chemical used by the U. Buried drums were uncovered and confirmed to be Agent Orange in US Vietnam-era veterans whose service involved duty on or near the perimeters of military bases in Thailand anytime between 28 February , and 7 May , may have been exposed to herbicides and may qualify for VA benefits.

A declassified US Department of Defense report written in suggests that there was a significant use of herbicides on the fenced-in perimeters of military bases in Thailand to remove foliage that provided cover for enemy forces. Between and , Thai nationals underwent an eight-month training course in North Vietnam. In the first half of , the rebels smuggled approximately 3, US-made weapons and 90, rounds of ammunition from Laos.

Between and , insurgents carried out 17 political assassinations. They avoided full scale guerrilla warfare until the summer of , when militants began engaging Thai security forces. A total of 13 clashes were recorded during that period. The insurgency spread to other parts of Thailand in , although 90 percent of insurgency-related incidents occurred in the northeast of the country.

The statement marked an escalation of violence in the conflict. The Vietnam War hastened the modernisation and Westernisation of Thai society. The American presence and the exposure to Western culture that came with it had an effect on almost every aspect of Thai life. Before the late s, full access to Western culture was limited to a highly educated elite in society, but the Vietnam War brought the outside world face to face with large segments of the Thai society as never before.

With US dollars pumping up the economy, the service, transportation, and construction industries grew phenomenally as did drug abuse and prostitution. The traditional rural family unit was broken down as more and more rural Thais moved to the city to find new jobs. This led to a clash of cultures as Thais were exposed to Western ideas about fashion, music, values, and moral standards.

The population began to grow explosively as the standard of living rose, and a flood of people began to move from the villages to the cities, and above all to Bangkok. Thailand had 30 million people in , while by the end of the 20th century the population had doubled. Bangkok's population had grown tenfold since and had tripled since Educational opportunities and exposure to mass media increased during the Vietnam War years.

Bright university students learned more about ideas related to Thailand's economic and political systems, resulting in a revival of student activism. The Vietnam War period also saw the growth of the Thai middle class which gradually developed its own identity and consciousness. Economic development did not bring prosperity to all.

During the s many of the rural poor felt increasingly dissatisfied with their condition in society and disillusioned by their treatment by the central government in Bangkok. Efforts by the Thai government to develop poor rural regions often did not have the desired effect in that they contributed to the farmers' awareness of how bad off they really were.

It was not always the poorest of the poor who joined the anti-government insurgency. Increased government presence in the rural villages did little to improve the situation. Villagers became subject to increased military and police harassment and bureaucratic corruption. Villagers often felt betrayed when government promises of development were frequently not fulfilled.

By the early s rural discontent had manifested itself into a peasant's activist movement. Student demonstrations had started in and grew in size and numbers in the early s despite the continued ban on political meetings. In June , nine Ramkhamhaeng University students were expelled for publishing an article in a student newspaper that was critical of the government. Shortly after, thousands of students held a protest at the Democracy Monument demanding the re-enrolment of the nine students.

The government ordered the universities to shut, but shortly afterwards allowed the students to be re-enrolled. In October another 13 students were arrested on charges of conspiracy to overthrow the government. This time the student protesters were joined by workers, businessmen, and other ordinary citizens. The demonstrations swelled to several hundred thousand and the issue broadened from the release of the arrested students to demands for a new constitution and the replacement of the current government.

On 13 October, the government released the detainees. Leaders of the demonstrations, among them Seksan Prasertkul , called off the march in accordance with the wishes of the king who was publicly against the democracy movement. In a speech to graduating students, he criticised the pro-democracy movement by telling students to concentrate on their studies and leave politics to their elders [military government]. As the crowds were breaking up the next day, on 14 October, many students found themselves unable to leave because the police blocked the southern route to Rajavithi Road.

Cornered and overwhelmed by the hostile crowd, the police responded with teargas and gunfire. The military was called in, and tanks rolled down Ratchadamnoen Avenue and helicopters fired down at Thammasat University. A number of students commandeered buses and fire engines in an attempt to halt the progress of the tanks by ramming into them. With chaos on the streets, King Bhumibol opened the gates of Chitralada Palace to the students who were being gunned down by the army. Despite orders from Thanom that the military action be intensified, army commander Kris Sivara had the army withdrawn from the streets.

The king condemned the government's inability to handle the demonstrations and ordered Thanom, Praphas, and Narong to leave the country, and notably condemned the students' supposed role as well. At Field Marshal Thanom Kittikachorn resigned from his post as prime minister. An hour later, the king appeared on national television, asking for calm, and announcing that Field Marshal Thanom Kittikachorn had been replaced with Dr.

Sanya Dharmasakti , a respected law professor, as prime minister. Post has been marked by a struggle to define the political contours of the state. It was won by the king and General Prem Tinsulanonda , who favoured a monarchial constitutional order. The post years have seen a difficult and sometimes bloody transition from military to civilian rule, with several reversals along the way. The revolution of inaugurated a brief, unstable period of democracy, with military rule being reimposed after the 6 October Massacre.

For most of the s, Thailand was ruled by Prem Tinsulanonda , a democratically inclined strongman who restored parliamentary politics. Thereafter the country remained a democracy apart from a brief period of military rule from to He was popular with the urban, suburban, and rural poor for his populist social programs. His rule came under attack from elites who saw danger in his "parliamentary dictatorship". In mid, Sondhi Limthongkul , a well-known media tycoon, became the foremost Thaksin critic. Eventually, Sondhi and his allies developed the movement into a mass protest and later unified under the name of People's Alliance for Democracy PAD.

On 19 September , after the dissolution of parliament, Thaksin became head of a provisional government. Without meeting much resistance, a military junta overthrew the interim government of Thaksin Shinawatra on 19 September The junta abrogated the constitution, dissolved Parliament and the Constitutional Court, detained and later removed several members of the government, declared martial law , and appointed one of the king's Privy Counselors, General Surayud Chulanont , as the Prime Minister.

The junta later wrote a highly abbreviated interim constitution and appointed a panel to draft a new permanent constitution. The junta also appointed a member legislature, called by some critics a "chamber of generals" while others claimed that it lacks representatives from the poor majority. In this interim constitution draft, the head of the junta was allowed to remove the prime minister at any time.

The legislature was not allowed to hold a vote of confidence against the cabinet and the public was not allowed to file comments on bills. Martial law was partially revoked in January The ban on political activities was lifted in July , [53] following the 30 May dissolution of the Thai Rak Thai party. The new constitution was approved by referendum on 19 August, which led to a return to a democratic general election on 23 December Following several court rulings against him in a variety of scandals, and surviving a vote of no confidence, and protesters blockading government buildings and airports, in September , Sundaravej was found guilty of conflict of interest by the Constitutional Court of Thailand due to being host of a TV cooking program , [54] and thus, ended his term in office.

As of October , Wongsawat was unable to gain access to his offices, which were occupied by protesters from the People's Alliance for Democracy. On 2 December , Thailand's Constitutional Court in a highly controversial ruling found the Peoples Power Party PPP [55] guilty of electoral fraud, which led to the dissolution of the party according to the law. It was later alleged in media reports that at least one member of the judiciary had a telephone conversation with officials working for the Office of the Privy Council and one other person.

The phone call was taped and has since circulated on the Internet. In it, the callers discuss finding a way to ensure the ruling PPP party would be disbanded. Accusations of judicial interference were levelled in the media but the recorded call was dismissed as a hoax. However, in June , supporters of the eventually disbanded PPP were charged with tapping a judge's phone. Immediately following what many media described as a "judicial coup", a senior member of the armed forces met with factions of the governing coalition to get their members to join the opposition and the Democrat Party was able to form a government, a first for the party since The leader of the Democrat Party, and former leader of the opposition, Abhisit Vejjajiva was appointed and sworn-in as the 27th Prime Minister , together with a new cabinet, on 17 December About a year later, a set of new Red Shirts protests resulted in 87 deaths mostly civilian and some military and 1, injured.

This resulted in the army returning fire with rubber bullets and some live ammunition. During the time of the Red Shirt protests against the government, there were numerous grenade and bomb attacks against government offices and the homes of government officials. Gas grenades were fired at Yellow Shirt protesters who were protesting against the Red Shirts and in favour of the government, by unknown gunmen killing one pro-government protester, the government stated that the Red Shirts were firing the weapons at civilians.

On 3 July , the opposition Pheu Thai Party , led by Yingluck Shinawatra the youngest sister of Thaksin Shinawatra , won the general election by a landslide seats in the House of Representatives , out of She had never previously been involved in politics, Pheu Thai campaigning for her with the slogan "Thaksin thinks, Pheu Thai acts".

Yingluck was the nation's first female prime minister and her role was officially endorsed in a ceremony presided over by King Bhumibol Adulyadej. Protests recommenced in late , as a broad alliance of protesters, led by former opposition deputy leader Suthep Thaugsuban , demanded an end to the Thaksin regime. A blanket amnesty for people involved in the protests, altered at the last minute to include all political crimes, including all convictions against Thaksin, triggered a mass show of discontent, with numbers variously estimated between 98, the police and , an aerial photo survey done by the Bangkok Post , taking to the streets.

The Senate was urged to reject the bill to quell the reaction, but the measure failed. A newly named group, the People's Democratic Reform Committee PDRC along with allied groups, escalated the pressure, with the opposition Democrat party resigning en masse to create a parliamentary vacuum. Protesters demand variously evolved as the movement's numbers grew, extending a number of deadlines and demands that became increasingly unreasonable or unrealistic, yet attracting a groundswell of support.

In response to the protests, Yingluck dissolved parliament on 9 December and proposed a new election for 2 February , a date that was later approved by the election commission. Yingluck insisted that she would continue her duties until the scheduled election in February , urging the protesters to accept her proposal: "Now that the government has dissolved parliament, I ask that you stop protesting and that all sides work towards elections.

I have backed down to the point where I don't know how to back down any further. In response to the Electoral Commission EC 's registration process for party-list candidates—for the scheduled election in February —anti-government protesters marched to the Thai-Japanese sports stadium, the venue of the registration process, on 22 December Suthep and the PDRC led the protest, which security forces claimed that approximately , protesters joined.

Yingluck and the Pheu Thai Party reiterated their election plan and anticipated presenting a list of party-list candidates to the EC. On 7 May , the Constitutional Court ruled that Yingluck would have to step down as the prime minister as she was deemed to have abused her power in transferring a high-level government official.

On 20 May the Thai army declared martial law and began to deploy troops in the capital, denying that it was a coup attempt. Martial law was declared formally ended on 1 April The ruling junta led by Prayuth Chan-o-cha promised to hold new elections, but wants to enact a new constitution before the elections are held. An initial draft constitution was rejected by government officials in A national referendum, the first since the coup, on a newly drafted constitution was held on 7 August On the night of 1 December , the fiftieth day after the death of Bhumibol, Regent Prem Tinsulanonda led the heads of the country's three branches of government to an audience with Vajiralongkorn to invite him to ascend to the throne as the tenth king of the Chakri dynasty.

In May , Bangkok hospital was bombed, wounding 24 people on the third anniversary of the military coup of Chakri dynasty Kings. Crown Prince. Prime Ministers of Thailand. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Aspect of Southeast Asian history. Part of a series on the. Early history Peopling of Thailand. Initial states. Regional history. Related topics. Constitutional history Military history Economic history.

Main article: Prehistoric Thailand. Main article: Initial states of Thailand. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. June Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Dvaravati. Khmer period sculpture of Vishnu c. A 13 meter long reclining Buddha, Nakhon Ratchasima. May Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Hariphunchai. Further information: Khun Borom , Tai languages , and Tai peoples.

Main article: Lavo Kingdom. Main articles: Sukhothai Kingdom and Lan Na. Sukhothai Kingdom. Spheres of influence in mainland Southeast Asia, end of 13th century CE. Main article: Ayutthaya Kingdom. Ayutthaya Kingdom. Ayutthaya's zones of influence and neighbours, c. Wat Phra Si Sanphet , Ayutthaya. Main article: Burmese—Siamese wars. Main article: Thonburi Kingdom. Thonburi Kingdom. Thonburi Kingdom territory in Southeast Asia, during Taksin 's reign. Main article: Rattanakosin Kingdom. Rattanakosin period. The Temple of the Emerald Buddha , one of the king's many construction projects.

Hanuman on his chariot, a mural scene from the Ramakien in Wat Phra Kaew. See also: Sunthorn Phu. See also: Franco-Siamese War. Further information: Western imperialism in Asia and Entente Cordiale. Territorial cessation of Siamese protectorates in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Occupation of Trat by French troops See also: Palace Revolt of Main article: Siam during World War I. Main article: Siamese revolution of Main articles: Boworadet Rebellion and Songsuradet Rebellion. See also: Thai cultural mandates and Franco-Thai War. See also: Vietnam War.

Main article: Agent Orange. See also: Effects of Agent Orange on the Vietnamese people. Main article: Communist insurgency in Thailand. Main article: Thai student uprising. Main article: History of Thailand — This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. December Main article: History of Thailand since This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. April See also: — Thai political crisis. Main article: —14 Thai political crisis. See also: National Council for Peace and Order.

Thailand portal History portal. It is not necessarily applied solely to the ancestor of the Lao. Journal of the Siam Society. Retrieved 13 June Twentieth Century Impressions of Siam. Retrieved 7 October Journal of Indo-Pacific Archaeology 32 : 78— A Short History of Thailand. New Haven: Yale University Press.

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Leiden: E. Retrieved 25 January New York: Knopf Doubleday. Retrieved 9 April Sir Arthur P. Phayre History of Burma ed. London: Susil Gupta. History of Burma. Retrieved 5 April The spot on which the present capital stands, and the country in its vicinity, on both banks of the river for a considerable distance, were formerly, before the removal of the court to its present situation called Bang-kok; but since that time, and for nearly sixty years past, it has been named Sia yuthia, pronounced See-ah you-t? The villages which occupy the right hand of the river, opposite to the capital, pass under the general name of Bang-kok.

World Politics. Goldman, "Franco-British Rivalry over Siam, — Ministry of Foreign Affairs Thailand. The Warbirds Forum. Retrieved 30 June National Archives of Singapore. Even the long-legged Englishmen could not escape our troops on bicycles. Archived from the original on 27 October Retrieved 27 October Southeast Asian Studies. Southeast Asian Studies Student Association. Archived from the original on 5 June Oxford University Press, Chicago tribune News. Chicago, Illinois. Tribune News Services.

Bangkok, Thailand. Inter Press Service. United States Department of Veterans Affairs. Retrieved 10 March This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. CIA Report. Retrieved 1 December The Senior Seminar in Foreign Policy — Retrieved 29 October Marine Corps Gazette. March The Military and Democracy in Asia and the Pacific.

ANU E Press. Retrieved 17 June The Nation. Archived from the original on 29 September The Washington Post. Retrieved 25 April The Guardian. Retrieved 22 February East Asia Forum. East Asian Bureau of Economic Research. Bangkok Post. Retrieved 22 May BBC News. Retrieved 15 December The Conversation. Al Jazeera. The New York Times. Retrieved 23 December Retrieved 7 May Southeast Asia Post.

Retrieved 22 August CBC News. Retrieved 20 May The Telegraph. Retrieved 12 November Associated Press. Retrieved 16 January Thongchai Winichakul. Siam Mapped. University of Hawaii Press, Thailand: A Short History 2nd edition. Yale University Press, Description du Royaume Thai ou Siam. Volume 2 of Description du Royaume Thai ou Siam: comprenant la topographie, histoire naturelle, moeurs et coutumes, legislation, commerce, industrie, langue, litt? Au profit de la mission de Siam. Retrieved 1 July Gustaaf Schlegel Siamese studies. Oriental Printing-Office, formerly E.

Brill Archive. Walter Armstrong Graham Siam: a handbook of practical, commercial, and political information 2 ed. Sir John Bowring The kingdom and people of Siam: with a narrative of the mission to that country in , Volume 1. McDonald Peter Anthony Thompson Siam: an account of the country and the people. Mary Lovina Cort Siam: or, The heart of farther India. George Blagden Bacon Siam: the land of the white elephant, as it was and is. Scribner, Armstrong. Smith, Samuel John, ed. Printed at S.

Smith's office. Retrieved 24 April Twentieth century impressions of Siam its history, people, commerce, industries, and resources, with which is incorporated an abridged edition of Twentieth century impressions of British Malaya. Assistant editor: Oliver T. Library of Congress classification: DS Survey and map making in Siam.

Barbara Leitch LePoer, editor. The Country Studies Series presents a description and analysis of the historical setting and the social, economic, political, and national security systems and institutions of countries throughout the world. Taylor, Keith W. Rattanakosin Period — History of Thailand — Outline Index. History of Asia. Book Category Asia portal.

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